What is the cosmological principle that theories of the universe are constrained by the necessity to allow human existence? A: The Anthropic Principle
Who was wrong about the cosmos in these two senses: (a) in the sense of believing that the chaotic distribution of cometary orbits is what you would expect in a primordial system and (b) in assuming that there was no natural way in which the regularities of planetary motion could be understood without divine intervention, from which he deduced the existence of a Creator? A: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Since we're in a planetary mood, here's the link to the NASA Science Website.
I love this comment from Sagan concerning Newton's cosmic misstep:
"Well, if Newton could be fooled, this is something worth paying attention to. It suggests that we, of doubtless inferior intellectual accomplishment, might be vulnerable to the same sort of error."
(Someone may want to supply the page numbers to my questions. My digital copy is all 0s and 1s.)